Question 4 (5 points)

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Sep 18, 2022


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Answering each assigned question in 2 to 3 complete, and well written paragraphs is a requirement. This will give your professor a clear view of the concepts, facts, and themes that you understand and what you still need to work on.
You are required to answer each written assignment questions in several (2- 3 or more), well-written, thoughtful paragraphs, IN YOUR OWN WORDS. If you find it especially difficult to rephrase technical and scientific material, you are not alone. Ask your professor for help.
The questions in the written assignments were purposely created to encourage you to think, make connections, and apply what you have learned. Most of the answers will not be found word for word in the text or the commentaries. This is deliberate—to help you learn to think through and interpret new information. Do your best with them and ask for help if you find yourself stumped or spending unreasonable or unprofitable amounts of time on them. There is very little if anything to be gained educationally from spending inordinate or inappropriate amounts of time on one question or another. Ask your instructor a question any time you find yourself frustrated, panicked, or overwhelmed. Answering assigned questions in 2 to 3 complete, well written paragraphs will give your instructor a clear view of the concepts, facts, and themes that you are understanding and what you still need to work on. Please review the college’s policy on academic integrity and let us know if you have any questions.
Please don’t hesitate to ask a question about these questions. You may want to read these questions before reading commentaries and the text, as well as afterwards, to highlight what is considered important and what we hope for you to take away.
Question 1 (5 points)
Based on the understanding of the scientific method you gained by reading Chapter 1, design your own scientific experiment (you don’t need to carry it out). Your experiment should be in the field of biology. Identify the observation you made, the hypothesis you will be testing, the independent and dependent variables, and 3 control variables that should be used.
Question 2 (5 points)
You see an ad for a “miracle supplement” called NQP3 that claims the supplement will reduce belly fat. They say it works by reducing the hormone cortisol and by providing your body with missing unspecified “nutrients”, but they do not cite any peer-reviewed clinical studies. They show photographs of three people who appear slimmer after taking the product. A board-certified plastic surgeon endorses the product on television. Answer the following questions about this product:
a. Do you think that because a doctor endorsed the product, it really works? Explain your answer.
b. What are two signs that these claims could actually be pseudoscience instead of true science?
c. Do you think the photographs are good evidence that the product works? Why or why not?
d. If you wanted to do a strong scientific study of whether this supplement does what it claims, what would you do? Be specific about the subjects, data collected, how you would control variables, and how you would analyze the data.
e. What are some ways that you would ensure that the subjects in your experiment in part d are treated ethically and according to human subjects protections regulations?
Question 3 (5 points)
Describe in detail how antibiotic resistance probably evolved in bacteria based on your understanding of evolution by natural selection (see Chapter 2). What is the source of the variations that natural selection works upon? How do evolving populations change over time when the environment suddenly changes (i.e. we discover a new antibiotic drug/therapy)?
Question 4 (5 points)
Cows are dependent on bacteria living in their digestive systems to help break down cellulose in the plant material that they eat. Explain what characteristics these bacteria must have to be considered living organisms themselves (and not simply part of the cow).


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